Next Article in Journal
Structure and Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-Receptor 12 Provide Insights into the Catalytic Mechanism of the Enzyme
Previous Article in Journal
Novel Application of Cultured Epithelial Autografts (CEA) with Expanded Mesh Skin Grafting Over an Artificial Dermis or Dermal Wound Bed Preparation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sulfuretin Attenuates MPP+-Induced Neurotoxicity through Akt/GSK3β and ERK Signaling Pathways
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Sexually Dimorphic Outcomes after Neonatal Stroke and Hypoxia-Ischemia

U1141 PROTECT, Inserm, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Hôpital Robert Debré, 48 boulevard Sérurier, 75019 Paris, France
EA4475—Pharmacologie de la Circulation Cérébrale, Faculté de Pharmacie de Paris, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 4 Avenue de l’Observatoire, 75006 Paris, France
Division of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, Children’s University Hospital of Geneva and University of Geneva, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 61;
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
PDF [605 KB, uploaded 26 December 2017]


Cohort studies have demonstrated a higher vulnerability in males towards ischemic and/or hypoxic-ischemic injury in infants born near- or full-term. Male sex was also associated with limited brain repair following neonatal stroke and hypoxia-ischemia, leading to increased incidence of long-term cognitive deficits compared to females with similar brain injury. As a result, the design of pre-clinical experiments considering sex as an important variable was supported and investigated because neuroprotective strategies to reduce brain injury demonstrated sexual dimorphism. While the mechanisms underlining these differences between boys and girls remain unclear, several biological processes are recognized to play a key role in long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes: gonadal hormones across developmental stages, vulnerability to oxidative stress, modulation of cell death, and regulation of microglial activation. This review summarizes the current evidence for sex differences in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic and/or ischemic brain injury, considering the major pathways known to be involved in cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with damages of the developing brain. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; microglia; gender; developing brain; oxidative stress; cell death stroke; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; microglia; gender; developing brain; oxidative stress; cell death

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Charriaut-Marlangue, C.; Besson, V.C.; Baud, O. Sexually Dimorphic Outcomes after Neonatal Stroke and Hypoxia-Ischemia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 61.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top