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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 282;

Enhancement in Corneal Permeability of Dissolved Carteolol by Its Combination with Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoparticles

Faculty of Pharmacy, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan
Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kitasato, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kindai University, 377-2 Ohno-Higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery)
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We prepared magnesium hydroxide (MH) nanoparticles, and investigated their effect when combined with dissolved carteolol on the bioavailability and intraocular pressure (IOP)-reducing effect of carteolol. The carteolol was solved in saline containing additives (0.5% methylcellulose, 0.001% benzalkonium chloride, 0.5% mannitol; CRT-solution). MH nanoparticles were prepared by a bead mill method with additives. Then carteolol/MH microparticle and carteolol/MH nanoparticle fixed combinations (mCMFC and nCMFC) were prepared by mixing the CRT-solution and MH particles. The transcorneal penetration and IOP-reducing effect of carteolol was evaluated in rabbits. The mean particle size of mCMFC was 7.2 μm, and the particle size was reduced to 73.5–113.5 nm by the bead mill treatment. The MH particles in nCMFC remained in the nano size range for 8 days after preparation, and the amounts of lacrimal fluid and corneal damage were unchanged by repetitive instillation of nCMFC (twice a day for 4 weeks). The transcorneal penetration of carteolol was enhanced by the combination with MH nanoparticles, and the IOP-reducing effect of nCMFC was significantly higher than that of CRT-solution or mCMFC. In conclusion, we designed nCMFC, and showed that the high levels of dissolved carteolol can be delivered into the aqueous humor by the instillation of nCMFC. Combination with MH nanoparticles may achieve an enhancement of corneal penetration for water-soluble drugs. These findings provide significant information that can be used to design further studies aimed at developing anti-glaucoma eye drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: carteolol; nanoparticle; magnesium hydroxide; glaucoma; corneal penetration carteolol; nanoparticle; magnesium hydroxide; glaucoma; corneal penetration

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Nagai, N.; Yamaoka, S.; Fukuoka, Y.; Ishii, M.; Otake, H.; Kanai, K.; Okamoto, N.; Shimomura, Y. Enhancement in Corneal Permeability of Dissolved Carteolol by Its Combination with Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 282.

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