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Docosahexaenoic Acid in Combination with Dietary Energy Restriction for Reducing the Risk of Obesity Related Breast Cancer

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Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Departments of Medicine, Penn State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
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Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Penn State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
3
Cancer Prevention Laboratory, Colorado State University, 221 Shepardson Building, 1173 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1173, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010028
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge)
There is strong evidence that obesity poses a significant risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. There are multiple mechanisms by which obesity can predispose to breast cancer, prominent among which is the creation of a pro-inflammatory milieu systemically in the visceral and subcutaneous tissue, as well as locally in the breast. Although dietary intervention studies have shown in general a favorable effect on biomarkers of breast cancer risk, it is still unclear whether losing excess weight will lower the risk. In this manuscript, we will review the evidence that omega-3 fatty acids, and among them docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in particular, may reduce the risk of obesity related breast cancer primarily because of their pleotropic effects which target many of the systemic and local oncogenic pathways activated by excess weight. We will also review the evidence indicating that intentional weight loss (IWL) induced by dietary energy restriction (DER) will augment the tumor protective effect of DHA because of its complementary mechanisms of action and its ability to reverse the obesity-induced alterations in fatty acid metabolism predisposing to carcinogenesis. We believe that the combination of DER and DHA is a promising safe and effective intervention for reducing obesity-related breast cancer risk which needs to be validated in appropriately designed prospective, randomized clinical trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity-related breast cancer; docosohexaenoic acid (DHA); dietary energy restriction (DER); combination of DHA and DER for breast cancer risk reduction; breast density; stearoyl-coA-desaturase (SCD-1) obesity-related breast cancer; docosohexaenoic acid (DHA); dietary energy restriction (DER); combination of DHA and DER for breast cancer risk reduction; breast density; stearoyl-coA-desaturase (SCD-1)
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Manni, A.; El-Bayoumy, K.; Thompson, H. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Combination with Dietary Energy Restriction for Reducing the Risk of Obesity Related Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 28.

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