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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010239

Implication of Soluble Forms of Cell Adhesion Molecules in Infectious Disease and Tumor: Insights from Transgenic Animal Models

1
Department of Biomedicine, Center of Biomedical Research, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
2
Division of Molecular Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Infectious Disease)
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Abstract

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, which mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. They play a critical role in maintaining tissue integrity and mediating migration of cells, and some of them also act as viral receptors. It has been known that soluble forms of the viral receptors bind to the surface glycoproteins of the viruses and neutralize them, resulting in inhibition of the viral entry into cells. Nectin-1 is one of important CAMs belonging to immunoglobulin superfamily and herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Both CAMs also act as alphaherpesvirus receptor. Transgenic mice expressing the soluble form of nectin-1 or HVEM showed almost complete resistance against the alphaherpesviruses. As another CAM, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) that recognize sialic acids are also known as an immunoglobulin superfamily member. Siglecs play an important role in the regulation of immune cell functions in infectious diseases, inflammation, neurodegeneration, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Siglec-9 is one of Siglecs and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of group B Streptococcus (GBS) binds to Siglec-9 on neutrophils, leading to suppress host immune response and provide a survival advantage to the pathogen. In addition, Siglec-9 also binds to tumor-produced mucins such as MUC1 to lead negative immunomodulation. Transgenic mice expressing the soluble form of Siglec-9 showed significant resistance against GBS infection and remarkable suppression of MUC1 expressing tumor proliferation. This review describes recent developments in the understanding of the potency of soluble forms of CAMs in the transgenic mice and discusses potential therapeutic interventions that may alter the outcomes of certain diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell adhesion molecule; nectin-1; nectin-2; herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM); Siglec-9; disease-resistant; therapeutic agent cell adhesion molecule; nectin-1; nectin-2; herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM); Siglec-9; disease-resistant; therapeutic agent
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ono, E.; Uede, T. Implication of Soluble Forms of Cell Adhesion Molecules in Infectious Disease and Tumor: Insights from Transgenic Animal Models. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 239.

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