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Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes

1
Joint Faculty of Veterinary Meedicine, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto Kagoshima-city, Kgoshima 890-0065, Japan
2
Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-Ku 156-8506, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010023
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Comparative Genomics)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis C virus; quasispecies; genotype; interferon therapy; direct-acting antivirals; resistant mutation hepatitis C virus; quasispecies; genotype; interferon therapy; direct-acting antivirals; resistant mutation
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Tsukiyama-Kohara, K.; Kohara, M. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 23.

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    Description: Revised manuscript with track change
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