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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 187;

Protective Effects of Protocatechuic Acid on Seizure-Induced Neuronal Death

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada
College of Medicine, Neurology, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuron Cell Death)
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Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of phenolic acid found in green tea and has been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of PCA on pilocarpine seizure-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus has not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of PCA on seizure-induced brain injury. Epileptic seizure was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pilocarpine (25 mg/kg) in adult male rats, and PCA (30 mg/kg) was injected into the intraperitoneal space for three consecutive days after the seizure. Neuronal injury and oxidative stress were evaluated three days after a seizure. To confirm whether PCA increases neuronal survival and reduced oxidative injury in the hippocampus, we performed Fluoro-Jade-B (FJB) staining to detect neuronal death and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) staining to detect oxidative stress after the seizure. In the present study, we found that, compared to the seizure vehicle-treated group, PCA administration reduced neuronal death and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. To verify whether a decrease of neuronal death by PCA treatment was due to reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, we measured glutathione with N-ethylmaleimide (GS-NEM) levels in hippocampal neurons. A seizure-induced reduction in the hippocampal neuronal GSH concentration was preserved by PCA treatment. We also examined whether microglia activation was affected by the PCA treatment after a seizure, using CD11b staining. Here, we found that seizure-induced microglia activation was significantly reduced by the PCA treatment. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that PCA deserves further investigation as a therapeutic agent for reducing hippocampal neuronal death after epileptic seizures. View Full-Text
Keywords: epilepsy; pilocarpine; neuron death; protocatechuic acid; microglia; oxidative stress epilepsy; pilocarpine; neuron death; protocatechuic acid; microglia; oxidative stress

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Lee, S.H.; Choi, B.Y.; Kho, A.R.; Jeong, J.H.; Hong, D.K.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Lee, M.W.; Song, H.K.; Choi, H.C.; Suh, S.W. Protective Effects of Protocatechuic Acid on Seizure-Induced Neuronal Death. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 187.

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