ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) is a member of the large family of ABC transporters which are involved in the active transport of many amphiphilic and lipophilic molecules including lipids, drugs or endogenous metabolites. It is now well established that ABCG1 promotes the export of lipids, including cholesterol, phospholipids, sphingomyelin and oxysterols, and plays a key role in the maintenance of tissue lipid homeostasis. Although ABCG1 was initially proposed to mediate cholesterol efflux from macrophages and then to protect against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), it becomes now clear that ABCG1 exerts a larger spectrum of actions which are of major importance in cardiometabolic diseases (CMD). Beyond a role in cellular lipid homeostasis, ABCG1 equally participates to glucose and lipid metabolism by controlling the secretion and activity of insulin and lipoprotein lipase. Moreover, there is now a growing body of evidence suggesting that modulation of ABCG1 expression might contribute to the development of diabetes and obesity, which are major risk factors of CVD. In order to provide the current understanding of the action of ABCG1 in CMD, we here reviewed major findings obtained from studies in mice together with data from the genetic and epigenetic analysis of ABCG1
in the context of CMD.
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