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Bromopropane Compounds Increase the Stemness of Colorectal Cancer Cells

College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea
College of Pharmacy, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Sunchon, Jeonnam 57922, Korea
Faculty of Natural Science and Technology, Tay Nguyen University, Buon Ma Thout 630000, Vietnam
College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Korea
College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Korea
College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
Medical Research Center for Gene Regulation, Brain Korea 21 Project, Chonnam National University Medical School, 160 Baekseo-ro, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61469, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1888;
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Stem Cells)
PDF [6724 KB, uploaded 1 September 2017]


Bromopropane (BP) compounds, including 1-bromopropane, 2-bromopropane, and 1,2-dibromopropane, are used in industry for various purposes, and their deleterious effects on human health are becoming known. In this study, we examined the effects of BP compounds on the stemness of colorectal cancer cells. At low, non-cytotoxic concentrations, BP compounds significantly increased spheroid formation in CSC221, DLD1, Caco2, and HT29 cells. In addition, the levels of cancer stem cell markers, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase-1, cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133), CD44, Lgr5, Musashi-1, Ephrin receptor, and Bmi-1 increased after exposure to BP compounds. BP compounds increased the transcriptional activity of the TOPflash and glioma-associated oncogene homolog zinc finger protein (Gli) promoters in reporter assays and increased the expression of Gli-1, Gli-2, Smoothened (SMO), and β-catenin by RT-PCR. These results demonstrate for the first time that BP compounds have the potential to promote cancer stemness. View Full-Text
Keywords: bromopropane; colorectal cancer; cancer stem cell bromopropane; colorectal cancer; cancer stem cell

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cho, Y.-C.; Nguyen, T.T.; Park, S.-Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, H.S.; Jeong, H.G.; Kim, K.K.; Kim, H. Bromopropane Compounds Increase the Stemness of Colorectal Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1888.

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