Advances in Understanding of Penile Carcinogenesis: The Search for Actionable Targets
AbstractPenile cancer (PeCa) is a rare malignancy with potentially devastating effects. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant with distinct precancerous lesions before development into invasive disease. Involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor in PeCa, and once disease is present outside the groin, prognosis is poor. Metastatic PeCa is challenging to treat and often requires multidisciplinary approaches in management. Due to its rarity, molecular understanding of the disease continues to be limited with most studies based on small, single center series. Thus far, it appears PeCa has diverse mechanisms of carcinogenesis affecting similar molecular pathways. In this review, we evaluate the current landscape of the molecular carcinogenesis of PeCa and explore ongoing research on potential actionable targets of therapy. The emergence of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and other immunotherapeutic strategies may improve outcomes for PeCa patients. View Full-Text
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Chipollini, J.; Chaing, S.; Azizi, M.; Kidd, L.C.; Kim, P.; Spiess, P.E. Advances in Understanding of Penile Carcinogenesis: The Search for Actionable Targets. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1777.
Chipollini J, Chaing S, Azizi M, Kidd LC, Kim P, Spiess PE. Advances in Understanding of Penile Carcinogenesis: The Search for Actionable Targets. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(8):1777.Chicago/Turabian Style
Chipollini, Juan; Chaing, Sharon; Azizi, Mounsif; Kidd, Laura C.; Kim, Patricia; Spiess, Philippe E. 2017. "Advances in Understanding of Penile Carcinogenesis: The Search for Actionable Targets." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 8: 1777.
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