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Gastro-Esophageal Reflux in Children

Department of Gastroenterology, Division of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London WC1N 3JH, UK
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, 80138 Napoli, Italy
Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1671;
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: It Is More than Just Heartburn)
Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) is common in infants and children and has a varied clinical presentation: from infants with innocent regurgitation to infants and children with severe esophageal and extra-esophageal complications that define pathological gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although the pathophysiology is similar to that of adults, symptoms of GERD in infants and children are often distinct from classic ones such as heartburn. The passage of gastric contents into the esophagus is a normal phenomenon occurring many times a day both in adults and children, but, in infants, several factors contribute to exacerbate this phenomenon, including a liquid milk-based diet, recumbent position and both structural and functional immaturity of the gastro-esophageal junction. This article focuses on the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of GERD that occurs in infants and children, based on available and current guidelines. View Full-Text
Keywords: gastro-esophageal reflux; children; infants; extraintestinal symptoms; guidelines gastro-esophageal reflux; children; infants; extraintestinal symptoms; guidelines
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Rybak, A.; Pesce, M.; Thapar, N.; Borrelli, O. Gastro-Esophageal Reflux in Children. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1671.

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