Variability of Creatine Metabolism Genes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractCreatine deficiency syndrome (CDS) comprises three separate enzyme deficiencies with overlapping clinical presentations: arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (GATM gene, glycine amidinotransferase), guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT gene), and creatine transporter deficiency (SLC6A8 gene, solute carrier family 6 member 8). CDS presents with developmental delays/regression, intellectual disability, speech and language impairment, autistic behaviour, epileptic seizures, treatment-refractory epilepsy, and extrapyramidal movement disorders; symptoms that are also evident in children with autism. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that genetic variability in creatine metabolism genes is associated with autism. We sequenced GATM, GAMT and SLC6A8 genes in 166 patients with autism (coding sequence, introns and adjacent untranslated regions). A total of 29, 16 and 25 variants were identified in each gene, respectively. Four variants were novel in GATM, and 5 in SLC6A8 (not present in the 1000 Genomes, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) or Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) databases). A single variant in each gene was identified as non-synonymous, and computationally predicted to be potentially damaging. Nine variants in GATM were shown to have a lower minor allele frequency (MAF) in the autism population than in the 1000 Genomes database, specifically in the East Asian population (Fisher’s exact test). Two variants also had lower MAFs in the European population. In summary, there were no apparent associations of variants in GAMT and SLC6A8 genes with autism. The data implying there could be a lower association of some specific GATM gene variants with autism is an observation that would need to be corroborated in a larger group of autism patients, and with sub-populations of Asian ethnicities. Overall, our findings suggest that the genetic variability of creatine synthesis/transport is unlikely to play a part in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
Supplementary (ZIP, 140 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Cameron, J.M.; Levandovskiy, V.; Roberts, W.; Anagnostou, E.; Scherer, S.; Loh, A.; Schulze, A. Variability of Creatine Metabolism Genes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1665.
Cameron JM, Levandovskiy V, Roberts W, Anagnostou E, Scherer S, Loh A, Schulze A. Variability of Creatine Metabolism Genes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(8):1665.Chicago/Turabian Style
Cameron, Jessie M.; Levandovskiy, Valeriy; Roberts, Wendy; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Scherer, Stephen; Loh, Alvin; Schulze, Andreas. 2017. "Variability of Creatine Metabolism Genes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 8: 1665.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.