Role Played by Signalling Pathways in Overcoming BRAF Inhibitor Resistance in Melanoma
AbstractThe discovery of the BRAFV600E mutation led to the development of vemurafenib (PLX4032), a selective BRAF inhibitor specific to the kinase, for the treatment of metastatic melanomas. However, initial success of the drug was dampened by the development of acquired resistance. Melanoma was shown to relapse in patients following treatment with vemurafenib which eventually led to patients’ deaths. It has been proposed that mechanisms of resistance can be due to (1) reactivation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway via secondary mutations, amplification or activation of target kinase(s), (2) the bypass of oncogenic pathway via activation of alternative signalling pathways, (3) other uncharacterized mechanisms. Studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) such as PDGFRβ, IGF1R, EGFR and c-Met were overexpressed in melanoma cells. Along with increased secretion of growth factors such as HGF and TGF-α, this will trigger intracellular signalling cascades. This review discusses the role MAPK and Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-AKT-mTOR) pathways play in the mechanism of resistance of melanomas. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Chan, X.Y.; Singh, A.; Osman, N.; Piva, T.J. Role Played by Signalling Pathways in Overcoming BRAF Inhibitor Resistance in Melanoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1527.
Chan XY, Singh A, Osman N, Piva TJ. Role Played by Signalling Pathways in Overcoming BRAF Inhibitor Resistance in Melanoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(7):1527.Chicago/Turabian Style
Chan, Xian Y.; Singh, Alamdeep; Osman, Narin; Piva, Terrence J. 2017. "Role Played by Signalling Pathways in Overcoming BRAF Inhibitor Resistance in Melanoma." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 7: 1527.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.