Next Article in Journal
Emerging Role of the Spleen in the Pharmacokinetics of Monoclonal Antibodies, Nanoparticles and Exosomes
Next Article in Special Issue
Improving Processing and Performance of Pure Lignin Carbon Fibers through Hardwood and Herbaceous Lignin Blends
Previous Article in Journal
Right- vs. Left-Sided Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Differences in Tumor Biology and Bevacizumab Efficacy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Activation of Magnesium Lignosulfonate and Kraft Lignin: Influence on the Properties of Phenolic Resin-Based Composites for Potential Applications in Abrasive Materials
Open AccessReview

Lignin from Micro- to Nanosize: Production Methods

Institute of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Engineering, TU Wien, 1060 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061244
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Lignin Challenge: Exploring Innovative Applications)
Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose. It has long been obtained as a by-product of cellulose production in pulp and paper production, but had rather low added-value applications. A changing paper market and the emergence of biorefinery projects should generate vast amounts of lignin with the potential of value addition. Nanomaterials offer unique properties and the preparation of lignin nanoparticles and other nanostructures has therefore gained interest as a promising technique to obtain value-added lignin products. Due to lignin’s high structural and chemical heterogeneity, methods must be adapted to these different types. This review focuses on the ability of different formation methods to cope with the huge variety of lignin types and points out which particle characteristics can be achieved by which method. The current research’s main focus is on pH and solvent-shifting methods where the latter can yield solid and hollow particles. Solvent shifting also showed the capability to cope with different lignin types and solvents and antisolvents, respectively. However, process conditions have to be adapted to every type of lignin and reduction of solvent demand or the integration in a biorefinery process chain must be focused. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignin; nanoparticles; microparticles; precipitation; biorefinery lignin; nanoparticles; microparticles; precipitation; biorefinery
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Beisl, S.; Miltner, A.; Friedl, A. Lignin from Micro- to Nanosize: Production Methods. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1244. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061244

AMA Style

Beisl S, Miltner A, Friedl A. Lignin from Micro- to Nanosize: Production Methods. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(6):1244. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061244

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beisl, Stefan; Miltner, Angela; Friedl, Anton. 2017. "Lignin from Micro- to Nanosize: Production Methods" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 6: 1244. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061244

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop