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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 496;

Complex Roles of Microglial Cells in Ischemic Stroke Pathobiology: New Insights and Future Directions

Neuroscience Axis, CHU de Québec Research Center (CHUL), Québec City, QC G1V 4G2, Canada
Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Québec City, QC G1V 4G2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Styliani-Anna E. Tsirka and Jillian Nissen
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microglia in Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease)
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Ischemic stroke constitutes the major cause of death and disability in the industrialized world. The interest in microglia arose from the evidence outlining the role of neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke pathobiology. Microglia constitute the powerhouse of innate immunity in the brain. Microglial cells are highly ramified, and use these ramifications as sentinels to detect changes in brain homeostasis. Once a danger signal is recognized, cells become activated and mount specialized responses that range from eliminating cell debris to secreting inflammatory signals and trophic factors. Originally, it was suggested that microglia play essentially a detrimental role in ischemic stroke. However, recent reports are providing evidence that the role of these cells is more complex than what was originally thought. Although these cells play detrimental role in the acute phase, they are required for tissue regeneration in the post-acute phases. This complex role of microglia in ischemic stroke pathobiology constitutes a major challenge for the development of efficient immunomodulatory therapies. This review aims at providing an overview regarding the role of resident microglia and peripherally recruited macrophages in ischemic pathobiology. Furthermore, the review will highlight future directions towards the development of novel fine-tuning immunomodulatory therapeutic interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: ischemic stroke; injury; repair; microglia; macrophages; monocytes ischemic stroke; injury; repair; microglia; macrophages; monocytes

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Guruswamy, R.; ElAli, A. Complex Roles of Microglial Cells in Ischemic Stroke Pathobiology: New Insights and Future Directions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 496.

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