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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 353;

Excitotoxins, Mitochondrial and Redox Disturbances in Multiple Sclerosis

Department of Neurology, University of Szeged, 6725 Szeged, Hungary
Department of Neurology, Vaszary Kolos Hospital, 2500 Esztergom, Hungary
MTA-SZTE Neuroscience Research Group, 6725 Szeged, Hungary
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christoph Kleinschnitz and Sven Meuth
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis 2016)
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). There is increasing evidence that MS is not only characterized by immune mediated inflammatory reactions, but also by neurodegenerative processes. There is cumulating evidence that neurodegenerative processes, for example mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and glutamate (Glu) excitotoxicity, seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. The alteration of mitochondrial homeostasis leads to the formation of excitotoxins and redox disturbances. Mitochondrial dysfunction (energy disposal failure, apoptosis, etc.), redox disturbances (oxidative stress and enhanced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production), and excitotoxicity (Glu mediated toxicity) may play an important role in the progression of the disease, causing axonal and neuronal damage. This review focuses on the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction (including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects and mitochondrial structural/functional changes), oxidative stress (including reactive oxygen and nitric species), and excitotoxicity that are involved in MS and also discusses the potential targets and tools for therapeutic approaches in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarker; excitotoxin; glutamate; oxidative stress; mitochondria; multiple sclerosis; neurodegeneration biomarker; excitotoxin; glutamate; oxidative stress; mitochondria; multiple sclerosis; neurodegeneration

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rajda, C.; Pukoli, D.; Bende, Z.; Majláth, Z.; Vécsei, L. Excitotoxins, Mitochondrial and Redox Disturbances in Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 353.

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