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Open AccessReview

Advances in Molecular Imaging of Locally Delivered Targeted Therapeutics for Central Nervous System Tumors

1
Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
2
Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
3
Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Innovations Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jamal Zweit, Sundaresan Gobalakrishnan and Stephen A. Bustin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020351
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecular Imaging in the Era of Precision Medicine)
Thanks to the recent advances in the development of chemotherapeutics, the morbidity and mortality of many cancers has decreased significantly. However, compared to oncology in general, the field of neuro-oncology has lagged behind. While new molecularly targeted chemotherapeutics have emerged, the impermeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) renders systemic delivery of these clinical agents suboptimal. To circumvent the BBB, novel routes of administration are being applied in the clinic, ranging from intra-arterial infusion and direct infusion into the target tissue (convection enhanced delivery (CED)) to the use of focused ultrasound to temporarily disrupt the BBB. However, the current system depends on a “wait-and-see” approach, whereby drug delivery is deemed successful only when a specific clinical outcome is observed. The shortcomings of this approach are evident, as a failed delivery that needs immediate refinement cannot be observed and corrected. In response to this problem, new theranostic agents, compounds with both imaging and therapeutic potential, are being developed, paving the way for improved and monitored delivery to central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. In this review, we focus on the advances and the challenges to improve early cancer detection, selection of targeted therapy, and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, brought forth by the development of these new agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: central nervous system (CNS) tumors; blood–brain-barrier; convection-enhanced delivery; theranostics central nervous system (CNS) tumors; blood–brain-barrier; convection-enhanced delivery; theranostics
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Tosi, U.; Marnell, C.S.; Chang, R.; Cho, W.C.; Ting, R.; Maachani, U.B.; Souweidane, M.M. Advances in Molecular Imaging of Locally Delivered Targeted Therapeutics for Central Nervous System Tumors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 351.

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