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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 327;

Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins

Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Science, University of Córdoba, Building Marie-Curie, Campus of Rabanales, 14014 Córdoba, Spain
Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sulla Risonanza Magnetica Nucleare per l’Ambiente, l’Agro-Alimentare ed i Nuovi Materiali (CERMANU), Via Università 100, 80055 Portici, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Araceli García, Luis Serrano and Vladimír Křen
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Lignin Challenge: Exploring Innovative Applications)
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Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.). In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p-coumarate (PCA), ferulate (FA) and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J) were only detected in wheat isolated lignin. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural residues; alkaline extraction; spent liquors; soda lignin; physico-chemical properties; structural elucidation agricultural residues; alkaline extraction; spent liquors; soda lignin; physico-chemical properties; structural elucidation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Domínguez-Robles, J.; Sánchez, R.; Espinosa, E.; Savy, D.; Mazzei, P.; Piccolo, A.; Rodríguez, A. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 327.

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