Newly Emerging Immune Checkpoints: Promises for Future Cancer Therapy
Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122642
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Immune Checkpoints and Immunotherapy)
Cancer immunotherapy has been a great breakthrough, with immune checkpoint inhibitors leading the way. Despite the clinical effectiveness of certain immune checkpoint inhibitors, the overall response rate remains low, and the effectiveness of immunotherapies for many tumors has been disappointing. There is substantial interest in looking for additional immune checkpoint molecules that may act as therapeutic targets for cancer. Recent advances during the last decade have identified several novel immune checkpoint targets, including lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H), T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain (TIM-3)/carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), and the poliovirus receptor (PVR)-like receptors. The investigations into these molecules have generated promising results in preclinical studies. Herein, we will summarize our current progress and understanding of these newly-characterized immune checkpoints and their potential application in cancer immunotherapy.