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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122597

Function of microRNAs in the Osteogenic Differentiation and Therapeutic Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ASCs)

1
Department of Cellular Biology & Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
2
Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Fort Gordon, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
Full-Text   |   PDF [987 KB, uploaded 2 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Traumatic wounds with segmental bone defects represent substantial reconstructive challenges. Autologous bone grafting is considered the gold standard for surgical treatment in many cases, but donor site morbidity and associated post-operative complications remain a concern. Advances in regenerative techniques utilizing mesenchymal stem cell populations from bone and adipose tissue have opened the door to improving bone repair in the limbs, spine, and craniofacial skeleton. The widespread availability, ease of extraction, and lack of immunogenicity have made adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) particularly attractive as a stem cell source for regenerative strategies. Recently it has been shown that small, non-coding miRNAs are involved in the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. Specifically, microRNAs such as miR-17, miR-23a, and miR-31 are expressed during the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, and appear to play a role in inhibiting various steps in bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) mediated osteogenesis. Importantly, a number of microRNAs including miR-17 and miR-31 that act to attenuate the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs are themselves stimulated by transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1). In addition, transforming growth factor β-1 is also known to suppress the expression of microRNAs involved in myogenic differentiation. These data suggest that preconditioning strategies to reduce TGFβ-1 activity in ASCs may improve the therapeutic potential of ASCs for musculoskeletal application. Moreover, these findings support the isolation of ASCs from subcutaneous fat depots that tend to have low endogenous levels of TGFβ-1 expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: TGFβ1; miR-17; miR-23a; miR-31; bone repair; BMP2 TGFβ1; miR-17; miR-23a; miR-31; bone repair; BMP2
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hodges, W.M.; O’Brien, F., III; Fulzele, S.; Hamrick, M.W. Function of microRNAs in the Osteogenic Differentiation and Therapeutic Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ASCs). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2597.

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