The Role of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP1) in Type 3 Diabetes: GLP-1 Controls Insulin Resistance, Neuroinflammation and Neurogenesis in the Brain
Department of Anatomy, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 61469, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112493
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein and neuroinflammation, is the most common neurodegenerative disease globally. Previous studies have reported that some AD patients show impaired glucose utilization in brain, leading to cognitive decline. Recently, diabetes-induced dementia has been called “type 3 diabetes”, based on features in common with those of type 2 diabetes and the progression of AD. Impaired glucose uptake and insulin resistance in the brain are important issues in type 3 diabetes, because these problems ultimately aggravate memory dysfunction in the brain. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been known to act as a critical controller of the glucose metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated that GLP-1 alleviates learning and memory dysfunction by enhancing the regulation of glucose in the AD brain. However, the specific actions of GLP-1 in the AD brain are not fully understood. Here, we review evidences related to the role of GLP-1 in type 3 diabetes.