Next Article in Journal
Real-Time Observation of the Interaction between Thioflavin T and an Amyloid Protein by Using High-Sensitivity Rheo-NMR
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Nitric Oxide on Voltage-Gated K+ Currents in Human Cardiac Fibroblasts through the Protein Kinase G and Protein Kinase A Pathways but Not through S-Nitrosylation
Previous Article in Journal
Metformin Potentiates the Benefits of Dietary Restraint: A Metabolomic Study
Open AccessReview

Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms

Department of Biomedical & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University, Irvine, CA 92618, USA
Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus, Chapman University, 9401 Jeronimo Road, Irvine, CA 92618-1908, USA
Department of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92868, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2272;
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Channel and Ion-Related Signaling)
Primary cilia are hair-like organelles and play crucial roles in vertebrate development, organogenesis, health, and many genetic disorders. A primary cilium is a mechano-sensory organelle that responds to mechanical stimuli in the micro-environment. A cilium is also a chemosensor that senses chemical signals surrounding a cell. The overall function of a cilium is therefore to act as a communication hub to transfer extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Although intracellular calcium has been one of the most studied signaling messengers that transmit extracellular signals into the cells, calcium signaling by various ion channels remains a topic of interest in the field. This may be due to a broad spectrum of cilia functions that are dependent on or independent of utilizing calcium as a second messenger. We therefore revisit and discuss the calcium-dependent and calcium-independent ciliary signaling pathways of Hedgehog, Wnt, PDGFR, Notch, TGF-β, mTOR, OFD1 autophagy, and other GPCR-associated signaling. All of these signaling pathways play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as in organ and embryonic development, cardiac functioning, planar cell polarity, transactivation, differentiation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, tissue homeostasis, and the immune response.
View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; cilioplasm; cytoplasm; sensory function; signaling calcium; cilioplasm; cytoplasm; sensory function; signaling
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Pala, R.; Alomari, N.; Nauli, S.M. Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2272.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop