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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102218

Protective Effects of Red Ginseng Oil against Aβ25–35-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis and Inflammation in PC12 Cells

1
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dong-A University, 37, Nakdong-daero 550 beon-gil, Saha-gu, Busan 49315, Korea
2
Department of Food & Life Science, College of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Inje University, 197, Inje-ro, Gimhae-si, Gyeongsangnam-do 50834, Korea
3
Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Abstract

One of pathological characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), aggregation and deposition of β amyloid (Aβ), has been accepted as a potent activator of neuronal cell death. Red ginseng is well-known for various pharmacological activities, but most studies have been focused on red ginseng water extract (RGW), which has resulted in the conception of the present study of red ginseng oil (RGO) against Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by Aβ were verified and the underlying mechanism by which RGO inhibited neuronal cell death, mitochondria dysfunction and NF-κB pathway related protein markers were evaluated. RGO attenuated Aβ25–35-induced apoptosis, not only by inhibiting calcium influx, but also by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential loss. RGO significantly decreased Bax, whereas increased Bcl-2 and inactivated of caspase-3 and -9 and PARP-1 stimulated by Aβ25–35. Anti-neuroinflammatory effect of RGO was demonstrated by downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, resulting in inhibiting of the NF-κB pathway and thereby suppressing the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The present study revealed that RGO is a potential natural resource of the functional foods industry as well as a promising candidate of multi-target neuronal protective agent for the prevention of AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; β-amyloid peptide; red ginseng oil; apoptosis; inflammation Alzheimer’s disease; β-amyloid peptide; red ginseng oil; apoptosis; inflammation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lee, S.; Youn, K.; Jeong, W.-S.; Ho, C.-T.; Jun, M. Protective Effects of Red Ginseng Oil against Aβ25–35-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis and Inflammation in PC12 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2218.

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