Next Article in Journal
Molecular Evolution of MERS Coronavirus: Dromedaries as a Recent Intermediate Host or Long-Time Animal Reservoir?
Next Article in Special Issue
In Vivo Imaging of Microglial Calcium Signaling in Brain Inflammation and Injury
Previous Article in Journal
Novel Therapeutics for Multiple Sclerosis Designed by Parasitic Worms
Previous Article in Special Issue
Neuron–Glia Crosstalk and Neuropathic Pain: Involvement in the Modulation of Motor Activity in the Orofacial Region
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102135

Microglia and Monocytes/Macrophages Polarization Reveal Novel Therapeutic Mechanism against Stroke

1
Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8585, Japan
2
Department of Neurology, Niishi-Niigata Chuo Hospital, Niigata 950-2085, Japan
3
Department of Neurology and Geriatrics, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microglia in Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1630 KB, uploaded 13 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and consists of two types, ischemic and hemorrhagic. Currently, there is no effective treatment to increase the survival rate or improve the quality of life after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in the subacute to chronic phases. Therefore, it is necessary to establish therapeutic strategies to facilitate functional recovery in patients with stroke during both phases. Cell-based therapies, using microglia and monocytes/macrophages preconditioned by optimal stimuli and/or any therapies targeting these cells, might be an ideal therapeutic strategy for managing stroke. Microglia and monocytes/macrophages polarize to the classic pro-inflammatory type (M1-like) or alternative protective type (M2-like) by optimal condition. Cell-based therapies using M2-like microglia and monocytes/macrophages might be protective therapeutic strategies against stroke for three reasons. First, M2-like microglia and monocytes/monocytes secrete protective remodeling factors, thus prompting neuronal network recovery via tissue (including neuronal) and vascular remodeling. Second, these cells could migrate to the injured hemisphere through the blood–brain barrier or choroid–plexus. Third, these cells could mitigate the extent of inflammation-induced injuries by suitable timing of therapeutic intervention. Although future translational studies are required, M2-like microglia and monocytes/macrophages therapies are attractive for managing stroke based on their protective functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; microglia; monocyte; macrophage; pleiotropic effects; protective; polarization; M2-like stroke; microglia; monocyte; macrophage; pleiotropic effects; protective; polarization; M2-like
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kanazawa, M.; Ninomiya, I.; Hatakeyama, M.; Takahashi, T.; Shimohata, T. Microglia and Monocytes/Macrophages Polarization Reveal Novel Therapeutic Mechanism against Stroke. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2135.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top