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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 62;

Lysyl Oxidase and the Tumor Microenvironment

Tissue Bank, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan
Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 33303, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Health Industry Technology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan
Liver Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33303, Taiwan
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Nutrition Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Care, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Li Yang
Received: 26 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment and Metabolism)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1024 KB, uploaded 29 December 2016]   |  


The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of oxidases contains a group of extracellular copper-dependent enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking of collagen and elastin by oxidation, thus maintaining the rigidity and structural stability of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Aberrant expression or activation of LOX alters the cellular microenvironment, leading to many diseases, including atherosclerosis, tissue fibrosis, and cancer. Recently, a number of studies have shown that LOX is overexpressed in most cancers and that it is involved in the regulation of tumor progression and metastasis. In contrast, a few reports have also indicated the tumor-suppressing role of LOX. In this short review, we discuss recent research on the correlations between LOX and cancer. Further, the role of LOX in tumor microenvironment remodeling, tumorigenesis, and metastasis and the underlying mechanisms have also been elucidated. View Full-Text
Keywords: lysyl oxidase; microenvironment; tumor progression; tumor suppressor; metastasis lysyl oxidase; microenvironment; tumor progression; tumor suppressor; metastasis

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Wang, T.-H.; Hsia, S.-M.; Shieh, T.-M. Lysyl Oxidase and the Tumor Microenvironment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 62.

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