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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 39;

Involvement of Host Non-Coding RNAs in the Pathogenesis of the Influenza Virus

College of Animal Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101, China
International College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrick C. Y. Woo
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction)
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Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a new type of regulators that play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. ncRNAs, including small non-coding RNAs (e.g., microRNAs, small interfering RNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are pervasively transcribed in human and mammalian cells. Recently, it has been recognized that these ncRNAs are critically implicated in the virus–host interaction as key regulators of transcription or post-transcription during viral infection. Influenza A virus (IAV) is still a major threat to human health. Hundreds of ncRNAs are differentially expressed in response to infection with IAV, such as infection by pandemic H1N1 and highly pathogenic avian strains. There is increasing evidence demonstrating functional involvement of these regulatory microRNAs, vault RNAs (vtRNAs) and lncRNAs in pathogenesis of influenza virus, including a variety of host immune responses. For example, it has been shown that ncRNAs regulate activation of pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-associated signaling and transcription factors (nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, NF-κB), as well as production of interferons (IFNs) and cytokines, and expression of critical IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). The vital functions of IAV-regulated ncRNAs either to against defend viral invasion or to promote progeny viron production are summarized in this review. In addition, we also highlight the potentials of ncRNAs as therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-coding RNAs; influenza A virus; microRNAs; lncRNAs; vault RNAs non-coding RNAs; influenza A virus; microRNAs; lncRNAs; vault RNAs

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Ma, Y.; Ouyang, J.; Wei, J.; Maarouf, M.; Chen, J.-L. Involvement of Host Non-Coding RNAs in the Pathogenesis of the Influenza Virus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 39.

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