Next Article in Journal
Troxerutin Attenuates Enhancement of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Inhibiting NOD Activation-Mediated Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Treated Mice
Next Article in Special Issue
Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review
Previous Article in Journal
Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Microbial Etiology of Pneumonia: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Resistance Patterns
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 30;

Prevention of Community-Acquired Pneumonia with Available Pneumococcal Vaccines

Pediatric Highly Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Johannes Haybaeck
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 25 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumonia: Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Prevention)
Full-Text   |   PDF [234 KB, uploaded 28 December 2016]


Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) places a considerable burden on society. A substantial number of pediatric and adult CAP cases are due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, but fortunately there are effective vaccines available that have a significant impact on CAP-related medical, social, and economic problems. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the published evidence concerning the impact of pneumococcal vaccines on the prevention of CAP in children and adults. Available data indicate that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are effective in children, reducing all-cause CAP cases and bacteremic and nonbacteremic CAP cases. Moreover, at least for PCV7 and PCV13, vaccination of children is effective in reducing the incidence of CAP among adults. Recently use of PCV13 in adults alone or in combination with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine has been suggested and further studies can better define its effectiveness in this group of subjects. The only relevant problem for PCV13 is the risk of a second replacement phenomenon, which might significantly reduce its real efficacy in clinical practice. Protein-based pneumococcal vaccines might be a possible solution to this problem. View Full-Text
Keywords: community-acquired pneumonia; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; pneumococcal prevention; 1. Introduction community-acquired pneumonia; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; pneumococcal prevention; 1. Introduction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Principi, N.; Esposito, S. Prevention of Community-Acquired Pneumonia with Available Pneumococcal Vaccines. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 30.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top