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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2120;

Microbial Etiology of Pneumonia: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Resistance Patterns

Department of Pneumology, Institut Clinic del Tórax, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona-Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Research Organization (MICRO), Welcome Trust-HRB Clinical Research, St James’s Hospital, St James’s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susanna Esposito
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumonia: Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Prevention)
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Globally, pneumonia is a serious public health concern and a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite advances in antimicrobial therapies, microbiological diagnostic tests and prevention measures, pneumonia remains the main cause of death from infectious disease in the world. An important reason for the increased global mortality is the impact of pneumonia on chronic diseases, along with the increasing age of the population and the virulence factors of the causative microorganism. The increasing number of multidrug-resistant bacteria, difficult-to-treat microorganisms, and the emergence of new pathogens are a major problem for clinicians when deciding antimicrobial therapy. A key factor for managing and effectively guiding appropriate antimicrobial therapy is an understanding of the role of the different causative microorganisms in the etiology of pneumonia, since it has been shown that the adequacy of initial antimicrobial therapy is a key factor for prognosis in pneumonia. Furthermore, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapies are sometimes given until microbiological results are available and de-escalation cannot be performed quickly. This review provides an overview of microbial etiology, resistance patterns, epidemiology and microbial diagnosis of pneumonia. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial etiology; pneumonia; diagnosis microbial etiology; pneumonia; diagnosis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cilloniz, C.; Martin-Loeches, I.; Garcia-Vidal, C.; San Jose, A.; Torres, A. Microbial Etiology of Pneumonia: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Resistance Patterns. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2120.

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