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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 223;

What Do We Know about Opioids and the Kidney?

Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York at Downstate, Brooklyn, New York, NY 11203, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Monica Valentovic
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nephrotoxicity)
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Evidence suggests a link between opioid use and kidney disease. This review summarizes the known renal manifestations of opioid use including its role in acute and chronic kidney injury. Both the direct and indirect effects of the drug, and the context which leads to the development of renal failure, are explored. While commonly used safely for pain control and anesthesia in those with kidney disease, the concerns with respect to side effects and toxicity of opioids are addressed. This is especially relevant with the worldwide increase in the use of opioids for medical and recreational use. View Full-Text
Keywords: opioids; renal failure; pharmacokinetics opioids; renal failure; pharmacokinetics

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Mallappallil, M.; Sabu, J.; Friedman, E.A.; Salifu, M. What Do We Know about Opioids and the Kidney? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 223.

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