Next Article in Journal
Bone Niches, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, and Vessel Formation
Previous Article in Journal
Breast Cancer Brain Metastases: Clonal Evolution in Clinical Context
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 154;

New Irradiation Method with Indocyanine Green-Loaded Nanospheres for Inactivating Periodontal Pathogens

Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651, Japan
Division of Periodontal Health Promotion, Dental Hospital, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651, Japan
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Pharmacology, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8650, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael R. Hamblin
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2609 KB, uploaded 13 January 2017]   |  


Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an adjunctive strategy for periodontitis treatments. However, use of aPDT for periodontal treatment is complicated by the difficulty in accessing morphologically complex lesions such as furcation involvement, which the irradiation beam (which is targeted parallel to the tooth axis into the periodontal pocket) cannot access directly. The aim of this study was to validate a modified aPDT method that photosensitizes indocyanine green-loaded nanospheres through the gingivae from outside the pocket using a diode laser. To establish this trans-gingival irradiation method, we built an in vitro aPDT model using a substitution for gingivae. Irradiation conditions and the cooling method were optimized before the bactericidal effects on Porphyromonas gingivalis were investigated. The permeable energy through the gingival model at irradiation conditions of 2 W output power in a 50% duty cycle was comparable with the transmitted energy of conventional irradiation. Intermittent irradiation with air cooling limited the temperature increase in the gingival model to 2.75 °C. The aPDT group showed significant bactericidal effects, with reductions in colony-forming units of 99.99% after 5 min of irradiation. This effect of aPDT against a periodontal pathogen demonstrates the validity of trans-gingival irradiation for periodontal treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; indocyanine green; diode laser photodynamic therapy; indocyanine green; diode laser

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sasaki, Y.; Hayashi, J.-I.; Fujimura, T.; Iwamura, Y.; Yamamoto, G.; Nishida, E.; Ohno, T.; Okada, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Kikuchi, T.; Mitani, A.; Fukuda, M. New Irradiation Method with Indocyanine Green-Loaded Nanospheres for Inactivating Periodontal Pathogens. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 154.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top