Next Article in Journal
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Modify the Response of Prostate Cancer Cells to Androgen and Anti-Androgens in Three-Dimensional Spheroid Culture
Next Article in Special Issue
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Mediated Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Induced-Neurotoxicity via Epigenetics Regulation in SK-N-SH Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Controlled Synthesis of Polyions of Heavy Main-Group Elements in Ionic Liquids
Previous Article in Special Issue
Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1447;

Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment

Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pamela Lein
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [357 KB, uploaded 1 September 2016]


Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson’s disease dementia and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal model; cognition; dementia; learning; memory; toxin animal model; cognition; dementia; learning; memory; toxin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

More, S.V.; Kumar, H.; Cho, D.-Y.; Yun, Y.-S.; Choi, D.-K. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1447.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top