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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 951;

Duplication and Remolding of tRNA Genes in the Mitochondrial Genome of Reduvius tenebrosus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Constantinos Stathopoulos
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Most assassin bugs are predators that act as important natural enemies of insect pests. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes of these insects are double-strand circular DNAs that encode 37 genes. In the present study, we explore the duplication and rearrangement of tRNA genes in the mt genome of Reduvius tenebrosus, the first mt genome from the subfamily Reduviinae. The gene order rearranges from CR (control region)-trnI-trnQ-trnM-ND2 to CR-trnQ-trnI2-trnI1-trnM-ND2. We identified 23 tRNA genes, including 22 tRNAs commonly found in insects and an additional trnI (trnI2), which has high sequence similarity to trnM. We found several pseudo genes, such as pseudo-trnI, pseudo-CR, and pseudo-ND2, in the hotspot region of gene rearrangement (between the control region and ND2). These features provided evidence that this novel gene order could be explained by the tandem duplication/random loss (TDRL) model. The tRNA duplication/anticodon mutation mechanism further explains the presence of trnI2, which is remolded from a duplicated trnM in the TDRL process (through an anticodon mutation of CAT to GAT). Our study also raises new questions as to whether the two events proceed simultaneously and if the remolded tRNA gene is fully functional. Significantly, the duplicated tRNA gene in the mitochondrial genome has evolved independently at least two times within assassin bugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondrial genome; tRNA gene rearrangement; TDRL model; Reduviidae mitochondrial genome; tRNA gene rearrangement; TDRL model; Reduviidae

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Jiang, P.; Li, H.; Song, F.; Cai, Y.; Wang, J.; Liu, J.; Cai, W. Duplication and Remolding of tRNA Genes in the Mitochondrial Genome of Reduvius tenebrosus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 951.

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