Next Article in Journal
The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of Stripe Rust Resistance Genes in the Wheat Cultivar Chuanmai45
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cloning and Characterization of a Flavonoid 3′-Hydroxylase Gene from Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)
Open AccessArticle

Overexpression of the Transcription Factors GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 Differentially Regulates Wax and Cutin Biosynthesis, Alters Cuticle Properties, and Changes Leaf Phenotypes in Arabidopsis

by Yangyang Xu 1,2, Hanying Wu 1, Mingming Zhao 1,2, Wang Wu 1,2, Yinong Xu 1 and Dan Gu 1,*
1
Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
2
College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040587
Received: 26 December 2015 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Plant Secondary Metabolism 2015)
SHINE (SHN/WIN) clade proteins, transcription factors of the plant-specific APETALA 2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) family, have been proven to be involved in wax and cutin biosynthesis. Glycine max is an important economic crop, but its molecular mechanism of wax biosynthesis is rarely characterized. In this study, 10 homologs of Arabidopsis SHN genes were identified from soybean. These homologs were different in gene structures and organ expression patterns. Constitutive expression of each of the soybean SHN genes in Arabidopsis led to different leaf phenotypes, as well as different levels of glossiness on leaf surfaces. Overexpression of GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 in Arabidopsis exhibited 7.8-fold and 9.9-fold up-regulation of leaf cuticle wax productions, respectively. C31 and C29 alkanes contributed most to the increased wax contents. Total cutin contents of leaves were increased 11.4-fold in GmSHN1 overexpressors and 5.7-fold in GmSHN9 overexpressors, mainly through increasing C16:0 di-OH and dioic acids. GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 also altered leaf cuticle membrane ultrastructure and increased water loss rate in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Transcript levels of many wax and cutin biosynthesis and leaf development related genes were altered in GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 overexpressors. Overall, these results suggest that GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 may differentially regulate the leaf development process as well as wax and cutin biosynthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: wax; cutin; SHN/WIN; AP2/ERF; soybean; overexpression; transcription factor; leaf development wax; cutin; SHN/WIN; AP2/ERF; soybean; overexpression; transcription factor; leaf development
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, Y.; Wu, H.; Zhao, M.; Wu, W.; Xu, Y.; Gu, D. Overexpression of the Transcription Factors GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 Differentially Regulates Wax and Cutin Biosynthesis, Alters Cuticle Properties, and Changes Leaf Phenotypes in Arabidopsis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 587.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop