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Bird Integumentary Melanins: Biosynthesis, Forms, Function and Evolution

Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Doñana Biological Station—CSIC, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology B & Immunology, School of Medicine and IMIB, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manickam Sugumaran
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 520;
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 27 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemistry and Mechanisms of Melanogenesis)
Melanins are the ubiquitous pigments distributed in nature. They are one of the main pigments responsible for colors in living cells. Birds are among the most diverse animals regarding melanin-based coloration, especially in the plumage, although they also pigment bare parts of the integument. This review is devoted to the main characteristics of bird melanins, including updated views of the formation and nature of melanin granules, whose interest has been raised in the last years for inferring the color of extinct birds and non-avian theropod dinosaurs using resistant fossil feathers. The molecular structure of the two main types of melanin, eumelanin and pheomelanin, and the environmental and genetic factors that regulate avian melanogenesis are also presented, establishing the main relationship between them. Finally, the special functions of melanin in bird feathers are also discussed, emphasizing the aspects more closely related to these animals, such as honest signaling, and the factors that may drive the evolution of pheomelanin and pheomelanin-based color traits, an issue for which birds have been pioneer study models. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanogenesis; pheomelanin; eumelanin; avian melanins melanogenesis; pheomelanin; eumelanin; avian melanins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Galván, I.; Solano, F. Bird Integumentary Melanins: Biosynthesis, Forms, Function and Evolution. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 520.

AMA Style

Galván I, Solano F. Bird Integumentary Melanins: Biosynthesis, Forms, Function and Evolution. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(4):520.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Galván, Ismael, and Francisco Solano. 2016. "Bird Integumentary Melanins: Biosynthesis, Forms, Function and Evolution" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, no. 4: 520.

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