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Open AccessArticle

Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis of Liaoning Province, College of Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Academic Editor: Vladimír Křen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040516
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
The aim was to investigate the prevention of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the subchronic immune injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the possible ameliorating effect of GSPE in mice. The subchronic AFB1-induced immune injury mice model was set up with the continuous administration of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW) AFB1 for six weeks by intragastric administration. Then, intervention with different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) of GSPE was conducted on mice to analyze the changes of body weight, immune organ index, antioxidant capability of spleen, serum immunoglobulin content, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. The prevention of GSPE on the immune injury induced by AFB1 was studied. The GSPE could relieve the AFB1-induced reduction of body weight gain and the atrophy of the immune organ. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the spleen in the AFB1 model group significantly increased, but levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly decreased. The GSPE could significantly inhibit the oxidative stress injury of the spleen induced by AFB1. AFB1 exposure could not significantly change the contents of IgA, IgG, or IgM. AFB1 significantly improved the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interferon γ (IFN-γ). Additionally, GSPE could decrease the expression of these four proinflammatory factors to different degrees and inhibit the inflammatory reaction of mice. The results suggest that GSPE alleviates AFB1-induced oxidative stress and significantly improves the immune injury of mice induced by AFB1. View Full-Text
Keywords: grape seed proanthocyanidin extract; AFB1; immune injury; alleviate; mice grape seed proanthocyanidin extract; AFB1; immune injury; alleviate; mice
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MDPI and ACS Style

Long, M.; Zhang, Y.; Li, P.; Yang, S.-H.; Zhang, W.-K.; Han, J.-X.; Wang, Y.; He, J.-B. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 516. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040516

AMA Style

Long M, Zhang Y, Li P, Yang S-H, Zhang W-K, Han J-X, Wang Y, He J-B. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(4):516. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040516

Chicago/Turabian Style

Long, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Kui; Han, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yuan; He, Jian-Bin. 2016. "Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 4: 516. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040516

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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