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The Development of Neuroendocrine Disturbances over Time: Longitudinal Findings in Patients after Traumatic Brain Injury and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Open AccessArticle

Temporal Genetic Modifications after Controlled Cortical Impact—Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury through a Systematic Network Approach

1
College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fujian 350002, China
2
Laboratory of Control and Systems Biology, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
3
Institute of Biomedical Science, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
4
Department of Neurosurgery, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
5
Institution Review Board (IRB), Christian Mennonite Hospital, Hualien 970, Taiwan
6
Graduate Institute of Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
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Division of Cardiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan
8
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17020216
Received: 21 October 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 6 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a primary injury caused by external physical force and also a secondary injury caused by biological processes such as metabolic, cellular, and other molecular events that eventually lead to brain cell death, tissue and nerve damage, and atrophy. It is a common disease process (as opposed to an event) that causes disabilities and high death rates. In order to treat all the repercussions of this injury, treatment becomes increasingly complex and difficult throughout the evolution of a TBI. Using high-throughput microarray data, we developed a systems biology approach to explore potential molecular mechanisms at four time points post-TBI (4, 8, 24, and 72 h), using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. We identified 27, 50, 48, and 59 significant proteins as network biomarkers at these four time points, respectively. We present their network structures to illustrate the protein–protein interactions (PPIs). We also identified UBC (Ubiquitin C), SUMO1, CDKN1A (cyclindependent kinase inhibitor 1A), and MYC as the core network biomarkers at the four time points, respectively. Using the functional analytical tool MetaCore™, we explored regulatory mechanisms and biological processes and conducted a statistical analysis of the four networks. The analytical results support some recent findings regarding TBI and provide additional guidance and directions for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain injury; network biomarker; systems biology; protein–protein interaction; drug target; cell cycle brain injury; network biomarker; systems biology; protein–protein interaction; drug target; cell cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wong, Y.-H.; Wu, C.-C.; Wu, J.C.-C.; Lai, H.-Y.; Chen, K.-Y.; Jheng, B.-R.; Chen, M.-C.; Chang, T.-H.; Chen, B.-S. Temporal Genetic Modifications after Controlled Cortical Impact—Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury through a Systematic Network Approach. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 216. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17020216

AMA Style

Wong Y-H, Wu C-C, Wu JC-C, Lai H-Y, Chen K-Y, Jheng B-R, Chen M-C, Chang T-H, Chen B-S. Temporal Genetic Modifications after Controlled Cortical Impact—Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury through a Systematic Network Approach. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(2):216. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17020216

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wong, Yung-Hao; Wu, Chia-Chou; Wu, John C.-C.; Lai, Hsien-Yong; Chen, Kai-Yun; Jheng, Bo-Ren; Chen, Mien-Cheng; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Bor-Sen. 2016. "Temporal Genetic Modifications after Controlled Cortical Impact—Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury through a Systematic Network Approach" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 2: 216. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17020216

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