Next Article in Journal
Translational Medicine: Creating the Crucial Bidirectional Bridge between Bench and Bedside
Next Article in Special Issue
Immunological Roles of Elevated Plasma Levels of Matricellular Proteins in Japanese Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Previous Article in Journal
Tension in Cancer
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1913;

Characterizing Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Infection in Bronchiectasis

Dipartimento Cardio-Toraco-Vascolare, University of Milan Bicocca, Respiratory Unit, San Gerardo Hospital, ASST di Monza, Via Pergolesi 33, 20900 Monza, Italy
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, San Gerardo Hospital, ASST di Monza, Via Pergolesi 33, 20900 Monza, Italy
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Cardio-Thoracic Unit and Cystic Fibrosis Adult Center, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122 Milan, Italy
Villa Marelli Institute, Niguarda Ca’ Granda Hospital, 20122 Milan, Italy
Scottish Centre for Respiratory Research, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK
Host Defence Unit, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Imperial College London, London SW3 6NP, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Diseases: Chronic Respiratory Infections)
Full-Text   |   PDF [543 KB, uploaded 16 November 2016]   |  


Chronic airway infection is a key aspect of the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis. A growing interest has been raised on non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. We aimed at describing the clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, therapeutic options and outcomes of bronchiectasis patients with pulmonary NTM (pNTM) disease. This was a prospective, observational study enrolling 261 adult bronchiectasis patients during the stable state at the San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy, from 2012 to 2015. Three groups were identified: pNTM disease; chronic P. aeruginosa infection; chronic infection due to bacteria other than P. aeruginosa. NTM were isolated in 32 (12%) patients, and among them, a diagnosis of pNTM disease was reached in 23 cases. When compared to chronic P. aeruginosa infection, patients with pNTM were more likely to have cylindrical bronchiectasis and a “tree-in-bud” pattern, a history of weight loss, a lower disease severity and a lower number of pulmonary exacerbations. Among pNTM patients who started treatment, 68% showed a radiological improvement, and 37% achieved culture conversion without recurrence, while 21% showed NTM isolation recurrence. NTM isolation seems to be a frequent event in bronchiectasis patients, and few parameters might help to suspect NTM infection. Treatment indications and monitoring still remain an important area for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis; non-tuberculous mycobacteria; pulmonary infection non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis; non-tuberculous mycobacteria; pulmonary infection

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Faverio, P.; Stainer, A.; Bonaiti, G.; Zucchetti, S.C.; Simonetta, E.; Lapadula, G.; Marruchella, A.; Gori, A.; Blasi, F.; Codecasa, L.; Pesci, A.; Chalmers, J.D.; Loebinger, M.R.; Aliberti, S. Characterizing Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Infection in Bronchiectasis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1913.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top