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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1821;

Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model

Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Department of Cosmetic Science, Providence University, Taichung City 43301, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonella Piozzi and Iolanda Francolini
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Chitosan hydrogels containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and toluidine blue O were prepared and assessed for their mucoadhesive property and antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic inactivation (PDI). Increased HPMC content in the hydrogels resulted in increased mucoadhesiveness. Furthermore, we developed a simple In Vitro 3D gingival model resembling the oral periodontal pocket to culture the biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). The PDI efficacy of chitosan hydrogel was examined against periodontal biofilms cultured in this 3D gingival model. We found that the PDI effectiveness was limited due to leaving some of the innermost bacteria alive at the non-illuminated site. Using this 3D gingival model, we further optimized PDI procedures with various adjustments of light energy and irradiation sites. The PDI efficacy of the chitosan hydrogel against periodontal biofilms can significantly improve via four sides of irradiation. In conclusion, this study not only showed the clinical applicability of this chitosan hydrogel but also the importance of the light irradiation pattern in performing PDI for periodontal disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan hydrogel; photodynamic inactivation; periodontal disease chitosan hydrogel; photodynamic inactivation; periodontal disease

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Peng, P.-C.; Hsieh, C.-M.; Chen, C.-P.; Tsai, T.; Chen, C.-T. Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1821.

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