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Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives

Institute of Microbial Chemistry (BIKAKEN), Numazu, 18-24 Miyamoto, Numazu-shi, Shizuoka 410-0301, Japan
Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan
Department of Urology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo 113-8677, Japan
Department of Urology, Kashiwa Kousei General Hospital, 617 Shikoda, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8551, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 43;
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 29 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Molecular Oncology)
PDF [1359 KB, uploaded 29 December 2015]


Bladder cancer (BC), the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer stem cell; bladder cancer cancer stem cell; bladder cancer

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Ohishi, T.; Koga, F.; Migita, T. Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 43.

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