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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 21626-21642;

Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators in Circulation Research

Research Centre for Molecular Imaging and Screening, Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar 66421, Germany
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar 66421, Germany
Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Munich 81675, Germany
Department of Material Science, JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan
Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako 351-0192, Japan
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research)-partner site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: HEKA, Lambrecht/Pfalz 67466, Germany
Academic Editor: Bernhard Schuster
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 27 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Protein Based Biosensors)
PDF [2012 KB, uploaded 8 September 2015]


Membrane potentials display the cellular status of non-excitable cells and mediate communication between excitable cells via action potentials. The use of genetically encoded biosensors employing fluorescent proteins allows a non-invasive biocompatible way to read out the membrane potential in cardiac myocytes and other cells of the circulation system. Although the approaches to design such biosensors date back to the time when the first fluorescent-protein based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors were constructed, it took 15 years before reliable sensors became readily available. Here, we review different developments of genetically encoded membrane potential sensors. Furthermore, it is shown how such sensors can be used in pharmacological screening applications as well as in circulation related basic biomedical research. Potentials and limitations will be discussed and perspectives of possible future developments will be provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators (GEVI); membrane potential; cardiomyocyte; action potential Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators (GEVI); membrane potential; cardiomyocyte; action potential

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Kaestner, L.; Tian, Q.; Kaiser, E.; Xian, W.; Müller, A.; Oberhofer, M.; Ruppenthal, S.; Sinnecker, D.; Tsutsui, H.; Miyawaki, A.; Moretti, A.; Lipp, P. Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators in Circulation Research. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 21626-21642.

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