Scanning for Therapeutic Targets within the Cytokine Network of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies
AbstractThe idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) constitute a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders that include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) and necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM). They represent distinct pathological entities that, most often, share predominant inflammation in muscle tissue. Many of the immunopathogenic processes behind the IIM remain poorly understood, but the crucial role of cytokines as essential regulators of the intramuscular build-up of inflammation is undisputed. This review describes the extensive cytokine network within IIM muscle, characterized by strong expression of Tumor Necrosis Factors (TNFα, LTβ, BAFF), Interferons (IFNα/β/γ), Interleukins (IL-1/6/12/15/18/23) and Chemokines (CXCL9/10/11/13, CCL2/3/4/8/19/21). Current therapeutic strategies and the exploration of potential disease modifying agents based on manipulation of the cytokine network are provided. Reported responses to anti-TNFα treatment in IIM are conflicting and new onset DM/PM has been described after administration of anti-TNFα agents to treat other diseases, pointing to the complex effects of TNFα neutralization. Treatment with anti-IFNα has been shown to suppress the IFN type 1 gene signature in DM/PM patients and improve muscle strength. Beneficial effects of anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6 therapy have also been reported. Cytokine profiling in IIM aids the development of therapeutic strategies and provides approaches to subtype patients for treatment outcome prediction. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
De Paepe, B.; Zschüntzsch, J. Scanning for Therapeutic Targets within the Cytokine Network of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 18683-18713.
De Paepe B, Zschüntzsch J. Scanning for Therapeutic Targets within the Cytokine Network of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(8):18683-18713.Chicago/Turabian Style
De Paepe, Boel; Zschüntzsch, Jana. 2015. "Scanning for Therapeutic Targets within the Cytokine Network of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 8: 18683-18713.