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Open AccessArticle

Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene

Research Institute of Plant Production, National Agricultural and Food Center, 921 68 Piešťany, Slovakia
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS, Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, 917 01 Trnava, Slovakia
Department of Botany and Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, 949 74 Nitra, Slovakia
Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
Cereal Research Non-profit Ltd., Szeged, Alsó kikötö sor 9, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ute Roessner
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 30046-30060;
Received: 22 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in the Plant Sciences)
The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ∆6desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T0 and T1 generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the γ-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%–0.32% (v/v) of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T1 generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T2 generation. Contents of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%–1.40% (v/v) and 0%–1.53% (v/v) from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat; essential fatty acid; γ-linolenic acid; ∆6desaturase; artificial gene; transgene wheat; essential fatty acid; γ-linolenic acid; 6desaturase; artificial gene; transgene
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Mihálik, D.; Klčová, L.; Ondreičková, K.; Hudcovicová, M.; Gubišová, M.; Klempová, T.; Čertík, M.; Pauk, J.; Kraic, J. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 30046-30060.

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