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Article

Changes in Ultrastructure and Cytoskeletal Aspects of Human Normal and Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes Exposed to Interleukin-1β and Cyclical Hydrostatic Pressure

1
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Rheumatology Unit, University of Siena, Policlinico Le Scotte, Viale Bracci 1, Siena 53100, Italy
2
Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena 53100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Charles J. Malemud and Ali Mobasheri
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26019-26034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161125936
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Apoptotic Chondrocytes and Osteoarthritis)
The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructure and cytoskeletal organization in human normal and Osteoarhritic (OA) chondrocytes, exposed to interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and cyclic hydrostatic pressure (HP). Morphological examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed differences between normal and OA chondrocytes at the nuclear and cytoplasmic level. IL-1β (5 ng/mL) induced a decrease of the number of mitochondria and Golgi bodies and a significant increase on the percentage of cells rich in vacuolization and in marginated chromatin. Cyclical HP (1–5 MPa, 0.25 Hz, for 3 h) did not change the morphology of normal chondrocytes, but had a beneficial effect on OA chondrocytes increasing the number of organelles. Normal and OA cells subjected to IL-1β and HP recovered cytoplasmic ultrastructure. Immunofluorescence (IF) examination of normal chondrocytes showed an actin signal polarized on the apical sides of the cytoplasm, tubulin and vimentin uniformly distributed throughout cytoplasm and vinculin revealed a punctuated pattern under the plasma membrane. In OA chondrocytes, these proteins partially lost their organization. Stimulation with IL-1β caused, in both type of cells, modification in the cytoskeletal organization; HP counteracted the negative effects of IL-1β. Our results showed structural differences at nuclear, cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal level between normal and OA chondrocytes. IL-1β induced ultrastructural and cytoskeletal modifications, counteracted by a cyclical low HP. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytoskeleton; human chondrocytes; hydrostatic pressure; interleukin-1β; osteoarthritis; ultrastructure cytoskeleton; human chondrocytes; hydrostatic pressure; interleukin-1β; osteoarthritis; ultrastructure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pascarelli, N.A.; Collodel, G.; Moretti, E.; Cheleschi, S.; Fioravanti, A. Changes in Ultrastructure and Cytoskeletal Aspects of Human Normal and Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes Exposed to Interleukin-1β and Cyclical Hydrostatic Pressure. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 26019-26034. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161125936

AMA Style

Pascarelli NA, Collodel G, Moretti E, Cheleschi S, Fioravanti A. Changes in Ultrastructure and Cytoskeletal Aspects of Human Normal and Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes Exposed to Interleukin-1β and Cyclical Hydrostatic Pressure. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(11):26019-26034. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161125936

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio, Giulia Collodel, Elena Moretti, Sara Cheleschi, and Antonella Fioravanti. 2015. "Changes in Ultrastructure and Cytoskeletal Aspects of Human Normal and Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes Exposed to Interleukin-1β and Cyclical Hydrostatic Pressure" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16, no. 11: 26019-26034. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161125936

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