Next Article in Journal
Systematic Analysis of the Maize PHD-Finger Gene Family Reveals a Subfamily Involved in Abiotic Stress Response
Next Article in Special Issue
Iron Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Effects on Plant Performance and Root Associated Microbes
Previous Article in Journal
Meta-Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis Microarray Data Reveals Dysregulation in RNA Splicing Regulatory Genes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characterization, Quantification, and Determination of the Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles to the Bone Marrow Cells
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 23482-23516;

Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells

Department of Chemistry, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yuping Bao
Received: 8 August 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1693 KB, uploaded 10 October 2015]   |  


In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the design and use of iron oxide materials with nanoscale dimensions for magnetic, catalytic, biomedical, and electronic applications. The increased manufacture and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in consumer products as well as industrial processes is expected to lead to the unintentional release of IONPs into the environment. The impact of IONPs on the environment and on biological species is not well understood but remains a concern due to the increased chemical reactivity of nanoparticles relative to their bulk counterparts. This review article describes the impact of IONPs on cellular genetic components. The mutagenic impact of IONPs may damage an organism’s ability to develop or reproduce. To date, there has been experimental evidence of IONPs having mutagenic interactions on human cell lines including lymphoblastoids, fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, lung epithelial cells, alveolar type II like epithelial cells, bronchial fibroblasts, skin epithelial cells, hepatocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, fibrosarcoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, and cervix carcinoma cells. Other cell lines including the Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse fibroblast cells, murine fibroblast cells, Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm cells, mice lung cells, murine alveolar macrophages, mice hepatic and renal tissue cells, and vero cells have also shown mutagenic effects upon exposure to IONPs. We further show the influence of IONPs on microorganisms in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon. The results shed light on the OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 23483 transformations IONPs undergo in the environment and the nature of the potential mutagenic impact on biological cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles; mutagenicity; mammalian cells; bacteria; environmental impact; humic acid; 8-OHdG iron oxide nanoparticles; mutagenicity; mammalian cells; bacteria; environmental impact; humic acid; 8-OHdG

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dissanayake, N.M.; Current, K.M.; Obare, S.O. Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 23482-23516.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top