Next Article in Journal
Rapid Carbonation for Calcite from a Solid-Liquid-Gas System with an Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid
Next Article in Special Issue
Restoration of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine–Nitric Oxide Balance to Prevent the Development of Hypertension
Previous Article in Journal
Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Critically Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) as Revealed by Mitochondrial and Microsatellite DNA
Previous Article in Special Issue
Over-Expression of Catalase in Myeloid Cells Confers Acute Protection Following Myocardial Infarction
Review

Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Veterans Affair Medical Center, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 11324-11349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150711324
Received: 9 May 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 25 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease 2015)
Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein), autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-α-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population. View Full-Text
Keywords: endothelial dysfunction; endothelium; atherosclerosis; inflammation; inflammatory disease; arthritis endothelial dysfunction; endothelium; atherosclerosis; inflammation; inflammatory disease; arthritis
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Steyers, C.M., III; Miller, F.J., Jr. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 11324-11349. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150711324

AMA Style

Steyers CM III, Miller FJ Jr.. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(7):11324-11349. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150711324

Chicago/Turabian Style

Steyers, Curtis M., III, and Francis J. Miller Jr. 2014. "Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 15, no. 7: 11324-11349. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150711324

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop