Next Article in Journal
Recent Advances in Bacteria Identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Nanomaterials as Affinity Probes
Next Article in Special Issue
A Novel Human TGF-β1 Fusion Protein in Combination with rhBMP-2 Increases Chondro-Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Potential Activity of Fevicordin-A from Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl. Seeds as Estrogen Receptor Antagonist Based on Cytotoxicity and Molecular Modelling Studies
Previous Article in Special Issue
Doublecortin May Play a Role in Defining Chondrocyte Phenotype
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint

Department of Orthopaedics, the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi Key Lab of Bone and Soft Tissue Injury Repair, Taiyuan 030001, China
Department of Orthopaedics, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, CORO West, Suite 402A, 1 Hoppin Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA
Department of Orthopaedics, Guiyang Medical University, No. 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 7250-7265;
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chondrocyte Phenotype in Cartilage Biology)
PDF [1336 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


To determine whether there is a correlation between the concentration of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in synovial fluid (SF) and the severity of cartilage damage in the human knee joints, the knee cartilages from patients were classified using the Outer-bridge scoring system and graded using the Modified Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, we detected and compared Ihh protein levels in rat and mice cartilages between normal control and surgery-induced osteoarthritis (OA) group by IHC and fluorescence molecular tomography in vivo respectively. Ihh expression was increased 5.2-fold in OA cartilage, 3.1-fold in relative normal OA cartilage, and 1.71-fold in OA SF compared to normal control samples. The concentrations of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples was significantly increased in early-stage OA samples when compared to normal samples (r = 0.556; p < 0.001); however, there were no significant differences between normal samples and late-stage OA samples. Up-regulation of Ihh protein was also an early event in the surgery-induced OA models. Increased Ihh is associated with the severity of OA cartilage damage. Elevated Ihh content in human knee joint synovial fluid correlates with early cartilage lesions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ihh; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; early cartilage lesions Ihh; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; early cartilage lesions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, C.; Wei, X.; Chen, C.; Cao, K.; Li, Y.; Jiao, Q.; Ding, J.; Zhou, J.; Fleming, B.C.; Chen, Q.; Shang, X.; Wei, L. Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 7250-7265.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top