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Open AccessArticle

14-3-3 Proteins Participate in Light Signaling through Association with PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs

1
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan
2
Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics (CRAG), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 22801-22814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151222801
Received: 31 October 2014 / Revised: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells 2014)
14-3-3 proteins are regulatory proteins found in all eukaryotes and are known to selectively interact with phosphorylated proteins to regulate physiological processes. Through an affinity purification screening, many light-related proteins were recovered as 14-3-3 candidate binding partners. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the 14-3-3 kappa isoform (14-3-3κ) could bind to PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Further analysis by in vitro pull-down assay confirmed the interaction between 14-3-3κ and PIF3. Interruption of putative phosphorylation sites on the 14-3-3 binding motifs of PIF3 was not sufficient to inhibit 14-3-3κ from binding or to disturb nuclear localization of PIF3. It was also indicated that 14-3-3κ could bind to other members of the PIF family, such as PIF1 and PIF6, but not to LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1). 14-3-3 mutants, as well as the PIF3 overexpressor, displayed longer hypocotyls, and a pif3 mutant displayed shorter hypocotyls than the wild-type in red light, suggesting that 14-3-3 proteins are positive regulators of photomorphogenesis and function antagonistically with PIF3. Consequently, our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins bind to PIFs and initiate photomorphogenesis in response to a light signal. View Full-Text
Keywords: PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF); 14-3-3 protein; light signaling; photomorphogenesis; Arabidopsis thaliana; plant; protein-protein interaction PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF); 14-3-3 protein; light signaling; photomorphogenesis; Arabidopsis thaliana; plant; protein-protein interaction
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Adams, E.; Diaz, C.; Hong, J.-P.; Shin, R. 14-3-3 Proteins Participate in Light Signaling through Association with PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 22801-22814.

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