Next Article in Journal
Molecular Photovoltaics in Nanoscale Dimension
Next Article in Special Issue
Biosurfactants for Microbubble Preparation and Application
Previous Article in Journal
Insight into a Novel p53 Single Point Mutation (G389E) by Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants as New Players in Animal and Plant Defense against Microbes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 141-172;

Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants

Microbial Cell Factory Laboratory, Bioresources Technology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
Division of Biosphere Science, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2010 / Revised: 3 December 2010 / Accepted: 10 December 2010 / Published: 30 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosurfactants)
Full-Text   |   PDF [567 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Lipopeptide biosurfactants (LPBSs) consist of a hydrophobic fatty acid portion linked to a hydrophilic peptide chain in the molecule. With their complex and diverse structures, LPBSs exhibit various biological activities including surface activity as well as anti-cellular and anti-enzymatic activities. LPBSs are also involved in multi-cellular behaviors such as swarming motility and biofilm formation. Among the bacterial genera, Bacillus (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas (Gram-negative) have received the most attention because they produce a wide range of effective LPBSs that are potentially useful for agricultural, chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The biosynthetic mechanisms and gene regulation systems of LPBSs have been extensively analyzed over the last decade. LPBSs are generally synthesized in a ribosome-independent manner with megaenzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Production of active‑form NRPSs requires not only transcriptional induction and translation but also post‑translational modification and assemblage. The accumulated knowledge reveals the versatility and evolutionary lineage of the NRPSs system. This review provides an overview of the structural and functional diversity of LPBSs and their different biosynthetic mechanisms in Bacillus and Pseudomonas, including both typical and unique systems. Finally, successful genetic engineering of NRPSs for creating novel lipopeptides is also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipopeptide biosurfactants (LPBSs); nonribosomal peptides; nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) lipopeptide biosurfactants (LPBSs); nonribosomal peptides; nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Roongsawang, N.; Washio, K.; Morikawa, M. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 141-172.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top