The problems with anticancer therapy are resistance and toxicity. From 3000 Cisplatin derivatives tested as antitumor agents, most of them have been rejected, due to toxicity. The aim of current study is the comparison of therapeutic combinations of the currently applied in clinical practice: Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Oxaliplatin, Nedaplatin, Lobaplatin, Heptaplatin, and Satraplatin. The literature data show that the strategies for the development of platinum anticancer agents and bypassing of resistance to Cisplatin derivatives and their toxicity are: combination therapy, Pt IV prodrugs, the targeted nanocarriers. The very important strategy for the improvement of the antitumor effect against different cancers is synergistic combination of Cisplatin derivatives with: (1) anticancer agents—Fluorouracil, Gemcitabine, Cytarabine, Fludarabine, Pemetrexed, Ifosfamide, Irinotecan, Topotecan, Etoposide, Amrubicin, Doxorubicin, Epirubicin, Vinorelbine, Docetaxel, Paclitaxel, Nab-Paclitaxel; (2) modulators of resistant mechanisms; (3) signaling protein inhibitors—Erlotinib; Bortezomib; Everolimus; (4) and immunotherapeutic drugs—Atezolizumab, Avelumab, Bevacizumab, Cemiplimab, Cetuximab, Durvalumab, Erlotinib, Imatinib, Necitumumab, Nimotuzumab, Nivolumab, Onartuzumab, Panitumumab, Pembrolizumab, Rilotumumab, Trastuzumab, Tremelimumab, and Sintilimab. An important approach for overcoming the drug resistance and reduction of toxicity of Cisplatin derivatives is the application of nanocarriers (polymers and liposomes), which provide improved targeted delivery, increased intracellular penetration, selective accumulation in tumor tissue, and enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The advantages of combination therapy are maximum removal of tumor cells in different phases; prevention of resistance; inhibition of the adaptation of tumor cells and their mutations; and reduction of toxicity.
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