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Article

Comparison of Two Immunoassay Screening Methods and a LC-MS/MS in Detecting Traditional and Designer Benzodiazepines in Urine

Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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Academic Editor: Marinella Farré Urgell
Molecules 2022, 27(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010112
Received: 20 November 2021 / Revised: 17 December 2021 / Accepted: 21 December 2021 / Published: 24 December 2021
Sensitive and specific immunoassay screening methods for the detection of benzodiazepines in urine represent an important prerequisite for routine analysis in clinical and forensic toxicology. Moreover, emerging designer benzodiazepines force labs to keep their methodologies updated, in order to evaluate the reliability of the immunochemical techniques. This study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of two different immunoassay methods for the detection of benzodiazepines in urine, through a comparison with the results obtained by a newly developed liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) procedure. A cohort of authentic urine samples (N = 501) were processed, before and after a hydrolysis procedure, through two immunoassays and an LC-MS/MS method. The LC-MS/MS target procedure was optimized for monitoring 25 different molecules, among traditional and designer benzodiazepines, including some metabolites. At least one of the monitored substances was detected in 100 out of the 501 samples. A good specificity was observed for the two immunoassays (>0.99), independently of the cut-offs and the sample hydrolysis. The new kit demonstrated a fairly higher sensitivity, always higher than 0.90; in particular, a high cross-reactivity of the new immunoassay was observed for samples that tested positive for lorazepam and 7-aminoclonazepam. The two immunoassays appeared adequate to monitor not only traditional benzodiazepines but also new designer ones. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunoassay; urine; benzodiazepine; designer benzodiazepine; flubromazepam immunoassay; urine; benzodiazepine; designer benzodiazepine; flubromazepam
MDPI and ACS Style

Rossi, B.; Freni, F.; Vignali, C.; Stramesi, C.; Collo, G.; Carelli, C.; Moretti, M.; Galatone, D.; Morini, L. Comparison of Two Immunoassay Screening Methods and a LC-MS/MS in Detecting Traditional and Designer Benzodiazepines in Urine. Molecules 2022, 27, 112. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010112

AMA Style

Rossi B, Freni F, Vignali C, Stramesi C, Collo G, Carelli C, Moretti M, Galatone D, Morini L. Comparison of Two Immunoassay Screening Methods and a LC-MS/MS in Detecting Traditional and Designer Benzodiazepines in Urine. Molecules. 2022; 27(1):112. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010112

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rossi, Brian, Francesca Freni, Claudia Vignali, Cristiana Stramesi, Giancarlo Collo, Claudia Carelli, Matteo Moretti, Dario Galatone, and Luca Morini. 2022. "Comparison of Two Immunoassay Screening Methods and a LC-MS/MS in Detecting Traditional and Designer Benzodiazepines in Urine" Molecules 27, no. 1: 112. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010112

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