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Open AccessArticle

Survey of Phenolic Acids, Flavonoids and In Vitro Antioxidant Potency Between Fig Peels and Pulps: Chemical and Chemometric Approach

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National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), Meknes BO 578, Morocco
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Laboratory of Bioprocess and Bio-Interfaces, Faculty of Science and Technics, Beni-Mellal BO 523, Morocco
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Grupo de Investigación de Producción Vegetal y Tecnología, Dpto. Producción Vegetal y Microbiología, Ecuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Ctra. de Beniel, km 3,2, E-03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain
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Dpto. Tecnología Agroalimentaria, IPOA. Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Ctra. de Beniel, km 3,2, E-03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh BO 2390, Morocco
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National School of Agriculture (ENA), Meknes BO S/40, Morocco
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USC 1422 GRAPPE, INRAE, Ecole Supérieure d’Agricultures, SFR 4207, QUASAV, 55 rue Rabelais, 49100 Angers, France
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Laboratory of Volatolomic, Department of General and Organic Chemistry Passage des Déportés 2, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Encarna Gómez-Plaza
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2574; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092574
Received: 17 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 28 April 2021
In the present study, chromatic coordinates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (LPIC) essays and their relative IC50 were investigated in 25 fig cultivars growing in Morocco. The aims of this study were to determine (i) the variation in these compounds among light and dark-colored cultivars, (ii) their partitioning between fruit peel and pulp and (iii) to display network connections among these variables. Twelve phenolic compounds (PCs) were isolated in peel extract versus eight in pulp samples. Anthocyanins, mainly cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were the predominant compounds in peels, where the mean concentrations were 75.90 ± 18.76 and 77.97 ± 18.95 µg/g dw, respectively. On the other hand, (−)-epicatechin and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were the major compounds in the pulp extracts, where the mean values were 5.23 ± 4.03 and 9.01 ± 5.67 µg/g dw, respectively. A two-dimensional hierarchically clustered heatmap was applied to the dataset to explore correlations in the dataset and similarities between cultivars, without dimensionality reduction. Results showed that anthocyanins, particularly pelargonidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were the main contributors to the peels’ free radical scavenging capacity. This capacity was particularly higher in the peel of dark-colored figs compared to the fruit pulp. The local cultivar “INRA 1301” showed the most promising phenolic profile due to its very high levels of almost all detected PCs, especially (−)-epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidine-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidine-3-O-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-O-rutinoside (54.66, 141.08, 35.48, 494.08, 478.66, 12.56 µg/g dw, respectively). Having the darkest figs in the collection (L* = 25.72, c* = 22.09 and h° = 20.99), this cultivar has also combined promising IC50 values, which were of 19.85, 40.58 and 124.78 µg/mL for DPPH, ABTS and LPIC essays, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenolic acids; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; Ficus carica L.; chemometric; heatmap phenolic acids; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; Ficus carica L.; chemometric; heatmap
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hssaini, L.; Hernandez, F.; Viuda-Martos, M.; Charafi, J.; Razouk, R.; Houmanat, K.; Ouaabou, R.; Ennahli, S.; Elothmani, D.; Hmid, I.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Hanine, H. Survey of Phenolic Acids, Flavonoids and In Vitro Antioxidant Potency Between Fig Peels and Pulps: Chemical and Chemometric Approach. Molecules 2021, 26, 2574. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092574

AMA Style

Hssaini L, Hernandez F, Viuda-Martos M, Charafi J, Razouk R, Houmanat K, Ouaabou R, Ennahli S, Elothmani D, Hmid I, Fauconnier ML, Hanine H. Survey of Phenolic Acids, Flavonoids and In Vitro Antioxidant Potency Between Fig Peels and Pulps: Chemical and Chemometric Approach. Molecules. 2021; 26(9):2574. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092574

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hssaini, Lahcen; Hernandez, Francisca; Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Charafi, Jamal; Razouk, Rachid; Houmanat, Karim; Ouaabou, Rachida; Ennahli, Said; Elothmani, Driss; Hmid, Ilham; Fauconnier, Marie L.; Hanine, Hafida. 2021. "Survey of Phenolic Acids, Flavonoids and In Vitro Antioxidant Potency Between Fig Peels and Pulps: Chemical and Chemometric Approach" Molecules 26, no. 9: 2574. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092574

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